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Breast cancer

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A lump in the breast does not just mean a malignant breast cancer. Especially women aged under 50 can have benign node. Breast cancer is the most common cancer for women worldwide. In Germany alone, 70,000 women fall ill every year. The probability of women throughout the entire life to breast cancer is less than 10%. With a rare genetic predisposition, the risk is even with an average of 65%. Therefore, it is not surprising, if women as a precaution operate Angelina Jolie, to radically reduce the risk of cancer. In this area, the plastic surgery can help to feel still attractive.

Angelina Jolie breast cancer and ovarian cancer prevention

Angelina Jolie has preemptively remove the mammary glands by your high breast cancer risk and visually replenished by means of silicone implants. A few years later has let then early 2015 in addition the fallopian tubes surgically removed both ovaries and areas. Thus, the risk of their rare genetic predisposition to the disease to breast or ovarian cancer by over 80 percent to less than 5% is reduced. At the same time you has improved her looks despite the chest surgery with the help of plastic surgery. Just for women with a high risk of cancer, their decision has a role model and makes maybe some women courage to face cancer at an early stage.

Breast cancer prognosis and forecast

The chances of recovery in breast cancer is strongly depend on early detection. Breast cancers are divided into various stages to. Depending on the stage, you have a higher chance of healing. The chance of a (permanent) cure of breast cancer is apparent from the following factors:

  • Size and spread
  • Boes differences degree
  • Some other medical risk factors

Good chances of recovery

One early detected breast cancer, he is not ill, he is still small and localised, then the chances of recovery with approx. 90% are very high.

Poor chances of recovery

If the lump in the breast was undetected longer and could grow, the cancer cells through the lymphatic system or blood can spread. There are so-called breast cancer metastases. How quickly this happens depends on the position of the nodes in the chest. This spread the cancer cells throughout the body and infect organs. When that happens, bones, lungs, brain, liver, thyroid and others can be infested bodies and the chances of recovery decrease drastically. Nevertheless, one may encounter the cancer. The survival rate after diagnosis breast cancer is, after all, almost 90 per cent within the first 5 years. How long they survive depends on which organs already how much were infected and harmed and how we respond to the treatments.

Symptoms and signs of breast cancer

Breast cancer can be seen even, still you should consult your doctor in one or more of the following symptoms and get themselves checked.

  • Node be felt. Nodes are size usually after 2 cm palpable, according to breast size and location of the node. You do not move, feel tight and not pain usually. But not each node means cancer.
  • Most commonly, the outer, upper area of the breast is affected.
  • Fluid leakage from a chest outside of the lactation. The liquid may be clear or bloody.
  • Sunken nipples
  • Skin lesions on her nipples
  • Persistent redness of the skin on the breast
  • The skin areas that are at once stretched (without concurrent weight gain)
  • A breast cancer that had spread to other organs can also lead to weight loss.
  • Not equal big boobs or a breast size changes
  • Especially in the early stages, breast cancer caused generally no discomfort or pain.
  • If the cancer has already spread and infect other organs, then pain in these organs can occur. Such as pain in the lungs or bones can be.

Causes and risk of breast cancer

Is breast cancer hereditary? A genetic predisposition as a cause of breast cancer is rare and is about 5 percent. However, the risk for this group with the genetic defect in breast cancer is developing very high and is an average 65 percent. Here is a list of the most important causes for breast cancer:

  • Obese people: risk + 250%
  • Genetic predisposition (in 5% of women): risk of + 65%
  • Intense long smoking: risk + 30%
  • Moderate daily consumption of alcohol: risk + 30%
  • Lack of exercise: Risk: + 25%
  • Iodine deficiency
  • Endothelin and ECE

A change of the heritage material from body cells leads to a faulty control of growth in cells. There are different ways to cause any damage to the controlled growth of cells (see above). In addition, it is crucial how well the body can repair damage again. Also is crucial how long to soak the harmful influences on the body.

Cell damage

Cell damage increase the risk to cancer. Following influences contribute to:

  • UV radiation
  • Radioactive radiation
  • Infections caused by viruses
  • Mould fungi
  • Various chemicals
  • Nutrition
  • Hormones

Hormonal causes

The longer the entire period during which the level of hormones in a woman varies each month, the higher the probability to become ill. Childlessness or a higher age at first birth seem to increase the risk. Conversely, multiple or early births and longer breastfeeding reduce the risk of disease.

In and after menopause, especially with a combination of estrogens and progestins, hormone replacement therapy increases the risk to breast cancer.

The pill only slightly affects the incidence.

Genetic causes

A genetic cluster of breast or ovarian cancer is a risk factor. A change in the breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 at about 5 percent of all breast cancer diagnoses is based on. That is, the risk that genetic factors promote the breast cancer cause and therefore is relatively low.

Thereby, the risk generally about the high vulnerability defined by external influences cell damage and thus an uncontrolled proliferation of facilitating.

If you listened to the genetic risk group, then a by an average of 65%, occasionally even over 80% to breast cancer risk. If a chest was already infested the risk that the second chest ill is also very high with over 60%.

You must to use however the previous studies with caution, since there are also many other genes in families, are shared and thus affect the susceptibility to breast cancer can be. In addition, families often live under similar circumstances (region, food, climate,...) which can also be responsible for cell damage.

Breast cancer recognize and feel node

Even though breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, with more than three quarters of all palpable nodes or breast tumors, no cancer diagnosed, but found a benign growth. No tumor is palpated by the women themselves, many lump in the breast, but only a cyst or an atypical growth. True, benign tumors go out frequently by the connective tissue (fibroadenoma) and sometimes by the fat cells (Lipomas).

Malignant tumors of breast (mammary carcinomas) usually assume the gland portion of the breast. Usually the milk ducts and rarely by the gland lobules.

Diagnosis of breast cancer

  • Palpation of the breast
  • Mammography
  • Ultrasound
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Sampling without surgery
  • Fine needle punctures
  • High speed punching
  • Stereotactic punch biopsy

A combination of methods allows a safe diagnosis without a surgical tissue removal.

Chemotherapy in breast cancer

In different stages of the disease of breast cancer, breast cancer patients benefit from chemotherapy:

  • Chemotherapy can complement surgery and radiation. Chemotherapy can reduce the risk of relapse and risk of metastases: tumor cells that remain invisible in the tissue is targeting. They are known in this case as adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy for women is eligible which adjuvant hormone therapy would not work, because your tumor grows hormone-independent.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended but also women with hormone-sensitive tumors, if from the outset a high relapse risk is feared.
  • Chemotherapy before surgery may also reduce the risk for relapse and metastasis. Prior to surgery, chemotherapy to shrink the tumor also. Women, then, can breast conserving surgery, despite large tumors. This form of treatment is called neoadjuvant.
  • In an inflammatory breast cancer
  • If breast cancer has spread and other bodies through breast cancer metastases are infested. The therapy to curb tumor growth and reduce disease-related symptoms.

Side effects of chemotherapy in breast cancer

  • Hair loss
  • Mucosal inflammation in the mouth, intestine, genitals
  • More Infektionsanfällig
  • Loss of appetite
  • Vomiting

Prevent breast cancer and treat

Spay

Women at high risk for breast cancer is recommended in addition to the breast tissue removal remove also the ovaries. This procedure takes place under general anaesthetic. The operation can be performed gently endoscopically through a few small incisions.

After the procedure is missing the hormone production in the ovaries. This affects the brain up to the metabolism.

  • Estrogen
  • Corpus luteum hormone (progesterone)
  • Testosterone

Several years before menopause the levels of progesterone begins to take off. With the entry in the menopause, estrogen production can reduce greatly. It is produced almost only more testosterone.

Effects of ovary removal

Progesterone deficiency can lead to depressive moods. Too little progesterone can also cause water retention to vein pain and distention of the bowel.

Estrogens provide the beauty of skin and hair. You expand the blood vessels and thereby regulate blood pressure. Estrogens regulate the cholesterol and reduce the risk of suffering a heart attack or stroke. In addition, they remain for the humidification of the mucous membranes.

Testosterone is responsible for a strong bone mass, muscle tissue, tension and thickness of the skin. It helps build muscle, reduces body fat production, improves the ability to think, ensures the necessary drive and is effective against depression and heart disease. Finally, testosterone is essential for the Libidio.

Mastectomy and BrustImplantate

In the context of a mastectomy, the body of the mammary glands in both breasts is removed to dramatically lower the risk of cancer. After consultation with the surgeon the nipple or skin of the areola can be preserved. Thus the breast increases risk but because parts of the breast glandular tissue on the skin can survive the process.

The reconstruction of the breast can be fat or silicone implants. Currently, the way with silicone implant is faster and also visually appealing the result at the end. Also it bulges enough body fat, which must first exist for obtaining adipose.

Recovery of the breast implant, fat or salt

Is a saline solution as a filling material, this intervention only with a small cut is desired (4-6 cm) because the imported silicone cushion is filled only after inserting this solution.

Fat is as filling material controversial, due to the possible loss of the own fat within the first year, so more operational subsequent corrections are necessary. Meanwhile, there are but improved methods for the own fat extraction and processing, so that the percentage of fat cells, which do not grow but die off and be removed from the body, is always less.

Current-generation silicone implants offer good protection from leakage. The form is balanced and more realistic than saline solutions. Silicone implants are very stable and suitable for the reconstruction in breast cancer.

Price - cost in euro: 

0- 6000

conclusion: 

Operation kind

The example of breast Implantant - usually general anesthesia

Operation duration

approx. 1 hour

Inpatient stay

1-3 days

Care

 

Result

usually well

Ability to work

After 2-3 weeks

Risks

  • Because the implant is umwachsen by a connective tissue, that tissue can contract may be. This is a hardening can be painful. This can be solved only by the physician through a renewed operation
  • In case of occurring the implant must be removed may be temporarily to again pacify the tissue
  • Is carried out of the incision around the nipple, the milk ducts can be injured, which can disrupt the quiet ability
  • Bleeding and bruising
  • After a fall or accident the should be, seek medical attention urgently to make study if the implant has been damaged
  • Change the sensitivity of your nipples and breasts
  • Voltage feelings in the chest can some time prevail, also after flying or diving (here 1-2 days)
  • When x-rays every doctor that should be made aware, that a breast implant was used, since this is often opaque in the X-ray image

Durability

8-15 years

Operation success

assessed after about 3 to 6 months

Advisor: 

If there were two or more cases of breast cancer among the closer relatives, you should before the 40th early go life year to the gynecologist and investigate on the gene defect. This has been established, it is advisable that you are in can examine regularly at short intervals or operate. Through inheritance, you can solve the high risk of the cancer only operationally and every woman must decide for themselves.

To operate the moderate risk of less than 10% while still no reason is the lifetime of a woman to breast cancer. From the age of 40 should be regularly examined.

Before surgery:

Breast tissue removal and breast implant

  • 10 days before any blood-thinning agents
  • 10 days before no cigarette and alcohol consumption

After the surgery:

Breast tissue removal and breast implant

  • Mind. 2 weeks Association maintain form
  • 2 months wearing a sports bra
  • 1 month no sunbathing
  • 2 to 3 months no heavy lifting and carrying
  • 6-8 weeks on his back to sleep

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